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Hydraulic effectiveness of flood-control measures

Non-structural approaches to flood management comprise those activities which are planned to eliminate or mitigate adverse effects of flooding without involving the construction of flow• modifying structures. Structural approaches to flood management - dams, levees, dikes, diversions, flood ways, etc., which provide some control of flood water by storage, containment or flow modification or diversion - may or may not be used conjunctively with non-structural approaches, but are not a prerequisite to the use of non-structural measures. However, non• structural measures should always be considered conjuntively in the planning and use of . structural measures because of the potential for synergistic enhancement of their effectiveness. Under some river basin conditions, the introduction of non-structural methods to limit flood damage may alone be more cost-effective than alternatives involving structural methods.

Non-structural approaches to flood management fall naturally into two categories:

  1. those anticipatory measures which can be assessed, defined, and implemented in the flood plains to reduce the risk to property from identifiable potential floods;
  2. those planned emergency response measures which are applied when a damaging flood is forecast, imminent or underway, to help mitigate its damaging effects.

Accordingly, a distinction is made between Planning Measures and Response Measures:

  1. Flood forecasting,
  2. Control of flood plain development
  3. Flood insurance
  4. Flood proofing
  5. Catchment management
  6. Flood emergency response planning
  7. Flood fighting
  8. Flood warning
  9. Evacuation
  10. Emergency assistance and relief.
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